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Programming Languages in a Nutshell

Modern programming languages have been around for decades. Here are some of the characteristics of the most popular ones around. Many have methods and typing borrowed from one another, but all can basically accomplish the same tasks, just in different ways.

This hub is a list of many of the most popular and widely known computer programming languages.

PHP

One of the biggest web-languages around. It powers a huge percentage of websites out there including massive ones like facebook.

origin: 1995
designer: Rasmus Lerdorf
current version: 5.x
typing discipline: dynamic, weak
paradigm: imperative, object-oriented, Procedural, reflective

Python

Python is a high-level programming language that supports supports multiple programming paradigms. It's used quite extensively in web programming and information security

origin: 1991
designer: Guido van Rossum
current version: 3.x
typing discipline: duck, dynamic, strong
paradigm: multiple(object-oriented, imperative, functional, reflective)

Perl

Perl is a language that was created by linguist Larry Wall mainly for reporting purposes. It's used widely on the internet for web programming and by unix/linux systems for easy manipulation and parsing of text files.

origin: 1972
designer: Dennis Ritchie
current version: 5.x
typing discipline: dynamic
paradigm: functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based)

C

C is one of the most widely used computer programming languages in the entire world, perhaps not directly used as much these days, but almost all of the modern languages from PHP to Java to C++ are based on C.

origin: 1983
designer: Dennis Ritchie
current version: C99
typing discipline: static, weak, manifest
paradigm: imperative (procedural), structured

C++

One of the most widely used and popular programming languages ever created. It has both high and low level language features, and is used in almost all platforms across the entire computer industry.

origin: 1983
designer: Bjarne Stroustrup
current version: ISO/IEC 14882:2003
typing discipline: static, unsafe, nominative
paradigm: multiple(procedural, object-oriented, generic)

Objective C

A programming language mainly used by Apple for OS X and iOS devices. Like C++ it's object oriented but seems to be more dynamic and easier to learn.

origin: 1986
designer: Tom Love & Brad Cox
current version: Objective-C 2.1
typing discipline: dynamic, strong
paradigm: reflective, object-oriented

Lisp

Lisp is actually a family of computer programming languages and the second oldest high-level programming language still in use (after Fortran). It's used a lot in programming AI (Artificial Intelligence) and AI research.

origin: 1958
designer: John McCarthy
typing discipline: static, dynamic, weak
paradigm: multiple(functional, procedural, reflective, meta)

Java

origin: 1995
designer: James Gosling (Sun)
current version: 6
typing discipline: static, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
paradigm: object-oriented, structured, imperative

C#

The name is pronounced as CEE SHARP, and is a programming language developed by Microsoft, specifically for their .NET platform and to compete with Java.

origin: 2001
designer: Anders Hejlsberg (Microsoft)
current version: 4.x
typing discipline: static, dynamic, strong, safe, nominative
paradigm: multiple(structured, imperative, object-oriented, event-driven, functional)

Pascal

Launched in the early 1970's this programming language was extremely efficient and encouraged structured programming practices.

origin: 1970
designer: Niklaus Wirth
typing discipline: static, strong, safe
paradigm: imperative, structured

Ruby

Inspired by both Lisp and Perl, this Japanese origin programming language was invented to be more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python.

origin: 1995
designer: Yukihiro Matsumoto
current version: 1.9.x
typing discipline: duck, dynamic, strong
paradigm: multi-paradigm

Basic

Basic stands for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, and is a computer language that has evolved into many dialects, and helped make home computer programming accessible to all enthusiasts.

origin: 1964
designer: John George Kemeny & Thomas Eugene Kurtz
typing discipline: strong
paradigm: multi-paradigm (unstructured, later procedural, later object-oriented)